Case 2 Women’s Reproductive Health
May 27, 2021
Case 3
June 7, 2021

Annotated bibliography 2

Annotated bibliography 2

Add 5 additional annotated sources (at least 5 of which must be peer-reviewed) to the ones listed below. These may include but should not be limited to resources identified for your Module 1 and 2 Case assignments. Make sure to include at least one source that addresses how diverse perspectives or cultural differences affect the problem you are seeking to further understand. Highlight new sources that you added for this module.

Please include introduction as one of the new ones

use this one: Nguyen, S. H., Dang, A. K., Vu, G. T., Nguyen, C. T., Le, T. H. T., Truong, N. T., … & Ho, R. (2019). Lack of knowledge about sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): Implications for STDs prevention and care among dermatology patients in an urban city in Vietnam. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(6), 1080.


This is the old ones, please use APA format and highlight the ones you add to this list. Reference list a must.

Coutinho, R. Z., Lima, L. C., Leocádio, V. A., & Bernardes, T. (2020). Considerations

about the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on fertility and sexual and

reproductive health of Brazilian women. Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População

37, e0130.

Coutino et al. (2020) sought to examine the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic had on Brazilian women’s reproductive health. The researchers conducted a literature review in which they analyzed how women’s fertility had been impacted in past exogenous crises including the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, the Spanish Flu, and Hurricane Katrina. They found that even as couples spend more time at home together during such periods, thus, creating an opportunity for reproduction, a reduction in the number of births was reported (Coutino et al., 2020). The low birth rates were associated with job losses and increased responsibility in domestic activities such as child as well as elder care, which made couples analyze their reproduction preferences. Another finding was that women’s reproductive health especially those that required prenatal care during such crises declined because of low-quality and limited healthcare services (Coutino et al., 2020). Also, social issues associated with physical distancing such as sexual and gender violence, mental health, and increased cost of healthcare services negatively impacted Brazilian women’s reproductive health (Coutino et al., 2020).

Singh, S. N., Smith, J.,  Aryasinghe, S., Khosla, R., Say, L. & Blanchet, K. (2018).

Evaluating the effectiveness of sexual and reproductive health services during

humanitarian crises: A systematic review. PLOS One.

In this research article, Singh et al. (2018) examined if conducting sexual and reproductive health interventions such as home visits, education, training of lower-level healthcare workers, integration of health services, men’s discussion groups on intimate partner violence, and counseling among other interventions, during humanitarian crises had any significant impact on women’s reproductive health. To find out, they conducted a systematic literature review, articles were searched in EMBASE, Global Health, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO databases, of those identified, 29 met the inclusion criteria (Singh et al., 2018). The studies showed that the sexual and reproductive health of women during humanitarian crises improved when wellness interventions were implemented because healthcare services such as antenatal care, skilled birth care, and support for female sexual survivors were enhanced (Singh et al., 2018). However, the researchers acknowledge that the study had limitations including that the findings are not generalizable and that they used strict study design criteria that excluded qualitative studies (Singh et al., 2018).

Omer, S.,  Zakar, R., Zakar, Z. M. & Fischer, F. (2021). The influence of social and

cultural practices on maternal mortality: a qualitative study from South Punjab,

Pakistan. Reproductive Health; 18 (97).

Women’s reproductive health can also be impacted by social and cultural practices, thus, Omer et al. (2021), collected data from participants located in  Dera Ghazi Khan, South Punjab, Pakistan, an Islamic state,  to understand the effects. The qualitative study involved three methods; interviews of gynecologists, focus groups that comprised female healthcare workers, and case studies among family members of deceased mothers (Omer et al., 2021). The researchers found that cultural restrictions which included purdah (the veil), whereby women were not allowed to travel outside their home without a man escorting them even during an obstetric emergency led to an increased delay in seeking quality care and worsening of their health. Also, lack of family planning especially among rural Pakistan women led to an increase in maternal deaths, as their culture dictates that the mother-in-law or husbands decide the family size (Omer et al., 2021). Early marriages in the country were also found to be a contributing factor in maternal deaths and decline in sexual and reproductive health. However, a limitation of the study is that it is not generalizable because it was conducted in a rural and impoverished region of Pakistan (Omer et al., 2021).



Pugh, S. (2019) Politics, power, and sexual and reproductive health and rights: impacts and

opportunities. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters; 27 (2): 1-5, DOI:


Besides social and cultural factors, politics significantly impacts women’s sexual and reproductive health. Pugh (2019) examined articles from various countries to understand how the shift towards far-right-wing and conservative politics had impacted the progress of sexual and reproductive health and rights. One impact identified was the increase of unsafe abortions especially among underprivileged women after the then US President, Donald Trump reenacted the Global Gag Rule in 2017 that prohibited NGOs that received funding from the US government from engaging in abortion-related activities including performing them, offering counseling services, and information (Pugh, 2019). In areas such as Yemen, where politics of conflict had increased, healthcare facilities had become primary targets of bombings and airstrikes, thus, disrupting medical services. Enacting restrictive policies and conflicts were found to have a negative impact on the sexual and reproductive health of women (Pugh, 2019). 

Raifman, S., Ralph, L., Biggs, M.A. & Grossman, D. (2021). “I’ll just deal with this on my

own”: a qualitative exploration of experiences with self-managed abortion in the

United States. Reproductive Health; 18 (91).


In the US abortion is legal but specific states have enacted policies that restrict individuals from accessing the services and education on sexual health reproduction, had led to a rise in self-managed abortions in the country. Raifman et al. (2021) conducted 14 in-depth interviews with females living in the US aged between 18–49 years old, who had attempted self-managed abortions. The reasons identified for conducting self-managed abortions included lack of knowledge about where to access facility-based abortion or how to obtain financial support for abortion services as well as the gestational age limitations on abortion in their state (Raifman et al., 2021). Other factors included stigma about abortion and a desire for privacy, logistical constraints, fear as well as the shame of admitting to anyone that they were pregnant. As such, the participants admitted that they had attempted to use methods that were not recommended by healthcare practitioners to get rid of the pregnancies such as taking antibiotics, caffeine pills, oral contraception, herbs, menstruation regulation pills, and even inserting parsley in their vagina state (Raifman et al., 2021). The internet was the main source for their abortion information; the methods increased their risk of health complications. Therefore, the researchers recommended the need for increased access to abortion services that are safe, private, and effective state (Raifman et al., 2021).


Several factors can impact women’s reproductive health, in this paper; those identified include limited access to healthcare services because of a health crisis, COVID-19. Others include social and cultural practices that limit the movement of women, far-right-wing and conservative politics, as well as, limited access to abortion services that have led to self-managed abortions. However, research shows that increased sexual and reproductive health education, training of lower-level health workers, counseling, and the involvement of men in the discussion can help improve women’s reproductive health.

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Managing Change at Multiple Levels
December 20, 2020
Review the Attached Case and Write a 500 word essay, Answering the Following Questions:
December 20, 2020

Annotated bibliography


A homicide detective once told me that “jurors expect us to be able to lift a fingerprint off a gnat’s ass”. A crass statement to be sure, but even the article required for this assignment contains a similar anecdote in which the author, who is also a judge, once heard a juror criticize the prosecutor for not conducting a thorough investigation because the prosecutor “didn’t even dust the lawn for fingerprints”. Fact: these shows are everywhere. Turn on your TV – scroll through the guide – is there a fictional crime show on? Probably…and given how pervasive these shows are in society it is at least a valid question as to whether or not jurors truly are being influenced by them.

You should have a good idea of what the CSI effect is after the first lecture. But does it really exist? Is there any scientific or empirical research actually demonstrating a true effect, or is the evidence mostly anecdotal. Is it really influencing us, the potential jurors of society, to believe that criminal investigation and forensic science is fast, infallible and conclusive, and always leads to the suspect…every time! The phenomenon gained attention after a few highly publicized cases made the news where it seemed to have been influence.

What does it matter if jurors are being influenced by fictional, CSI-like shows? I refer you to the 6th Amendment that includes the entitlement to a trial by an impartial jury – is that standard maintained if we are bringing what we see on TV into the deliberation room in deciding a verdict?

General Guidelines: Your task for this assignment is to prepare an annotated bibliography on the CSI Effect. You should conduct a reference search and find appropriate sources that contain information on any aspect of the CSI Effect – these articles can discuss what it is, whether it exists, surveys of individuals who work in the system on their perceptions of the CSI Effect or any other topic that deals with the CSI Effect.

Your completed annotated bibliography should:

  • Include a separate title page – properly formatted as shown in the writing lecture
  • Be written in Times New Roman or Arial font, size 12
  • No less than three academic (peer-reviewed) journal articles. Note: pay attention to the date of the study – more recent articles may be more appropriate.
  • You should list the sources by the full APA reference list citation.
  • Under each source, you should include a summary of the source (between 5 and 8 sentences) with a particular focus on information that is useful in answering whether or not the CSI Effect exists. You should not simply copy and paste the article abstract.
  • A final concluding discussion – based on information contained in the sources – that summarizes what you learned about the CSI Effect. This should be no more than one page and you should properly cite all material taken from a source in APA format. Be sure to follow all recommendations for writing this section contained in the online writing lecture. There is also a handout and other materials in the assignments tab of blackboard that can help you with APA formatting. USE THEM!
  • For this assignment, you should single space: the references, your summary of the reference, and your final narrative. Include a single space between each reference.
  • Note: I have included examples of annotated bibliographies all completed by my former students on different topics. Use them as the gold standard for this assignment.

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